~ How to Respond to a Crisis ~
Crisis intervention involves a range of methods used to offer short term immediate help to individuals who have experienced an event that produces mental, physical, emotional and behavioural distress.
“Crisis Intervention: TEMPORARY, but ACTIVE and SUPPORTIVE entry into the life of individuals or groups during a period of extreme distress. “Emotional First Aid.”Different interventions tools are used for individuals vs. groups.”
(Jeffrey H. Mitchell, PhD)
Crises happens to everyone, and intervention can take many forms. These can include family provided or professional counselling strategies as well as other methods aimed at helping the individual cope with crisis and reduce the negative psychological, physiological and behavioural effects of trauma on that person and their environment.
The purpose of crisis counselling is to deal with the person’s current status by dealing with a crisis. Chronic exposure to stress or trauma can lead to mental illness. This means it is important that counsellors have the skills and knowledge to help clients cope with stress and trauma.
Crisis intervention differs from other counselling interventions in that it focuses on short-term strategies to prevent damage during and immediately after the experience of trauma. Crisis counselling is often followed by counselling for long term improvement of the client’s mental health and personal wellbeing.
Crisis intervention has several purposes. It aims to reduce the intensity of the person’s physical, mental, emotional and behavioural reactions to a crisis. It also helps the individual return to the level of functioning they had before the incident.
There is also an educational component to crisis intervention. The individual will be advised of the normal reactions to an abnormal situation. The individual will be told that their responses are temporary and that recovery happens in its own time – there is no ‘normal’ recovery period.
“Principles of Crisis Intervention:
Simplicity – People respond to simple not complex in a crisis
Brevity – Minutes up to 1 hour in most cases (3-5 contacts typical)
Innovation – Providers must be creative to manage new situations
Pragmatism – Suggestions must be practical if they are to work
Proximity – Most effective contacts are closer to operational zones
Immediacy – A state of crisis demands rapid intervention
Expectancy – The crisis intervener works to set up expectations of a
reasonable positive outcome”
(Jeffrey H. Mitchell, PhD)
Who Provides Crisis Intervention?
In the initial stages, a range of professionals may be involved.
They may include:
- fire fighters
- emergency medical staff
- search and rescue staff
- police officers
- communications personnel
- community members
- hospital workers and so on.
Responding to a Crisis - Urgent or Routine?
The Goals of Crisis intervention are to
- Mitigate the impact of an event
- Facilitate a normal recovery process, where normal people are having normal reactions to abnormal events.
- Restore adaptive functioning.
However, many societal factors will affect how people respond to a crisis. These factors include:
- Law enforcement
- Psychiatry and psychology
- Emergency medical services
When responding to a crisis, the emergency services will deal with a wide range of psychological and social problems. Problems can occur slowly over time or suddenly. When people face a crisis, they can experience a range of psychological and physical symptoms, as well as changes in their relationship and routines. Some problems are emergencies and require urgent intervention and stabilisation, whilst others are not emergencies. Many may be urgent and require attention within three days. A qualified emergency and crisis intervention specialist can evaluate a crisis and give advice on the necessary steps to take.
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